The process of aging changes the interplay of the immune, endocrine and nervous systems

The immune, endocrine and nervous systems interact with each other by means of cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters. Interaction is dependent on specific receptors and respective signaling pathways in target cells. During aging, changes occur on many levels of these global systems which depend on oxidative damage, non-enzymatic glycosylation, mitochondrial mutations, defects in cell cycle control, mitotic dysregulation, genome instability, telomere shortening and other chromosomal pathologies. An alteration of the numerical value of a parameter of one system can lead to changes of the numerical value of a variable of another system. In a non-linear dynamic process these changes can contribute to the aging phenotype. Although it is extremely difficult to dissect linear interrelations of three global systems during aging, this review attempts to identify some simple linear pathways. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that chronic inflammatory diseases may accelerate the aging process. This review also reveals that new statistical and computational methods are necessary to unravel the complexity of the aging process.

Rainer H Straub, Maurizio Cutolo, Bettina Zietz, Jürgen Schölmerich



Similar articles:

Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid ...

The HPA Axis Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal

Life is a continuum of constant change. The body, the ...

How adrenal axis works

The adrenal axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) refers to a complex set ...

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

Regulation of the reproductive axis begins at the level of ...

The endocrine system and ageing

Complex changes occur within the endocrine system of ageing individuals ...


Our site collects information using cookies to be more convenient and customized to your needs interests. The purposes of the use of cookies are defined in Policy the processing of personal data .If you agree to continue to receive cookies, please click the "Accept" button. If you don't agree or want to resolve this issue later, please change your browser cookie settings.